Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
• 2017 Ph.D. in Economics, Korea University
• 2012 M.A. in Economics, Korea University
• 2010 B.S. in Industrial engineering (major) and B.A. in Economics (double major), Korea University
• Education, labor economics, economic growth, macroeconomics
• Legal Entitlement and Empowerment of Marriage Immigrants in Korea (with Dainn Wie), Feminist Economics, forthcoming.
• Output Cost of Gender Discrimination in the Korean Labour Market, Pacific Economic Review, 24(5), 2019.
• Human Capital and Income Inequality (with Jong-Wha Lee), Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 23(4), 2018.
• Human Capital in the Long Run (with Jong-Wha Lee), Journal of Development Economics, 122, 2016.
• Effects of Educational Mismatch on Wages in the Korean Labor Market (with Jong-Wha Lee and Eunbi Song), Asian Economic Journal, 30(4), 2016.
• Patterns and Determinants of Intergenerational Educational Mobility: Evidence Across Countries (with Jong-Wha Lee), AGI Working Paper Series 2019-02, 2019.
• Empirical Analysis of Korean Female's Educational Hypogamy (in Korean), working paper, 2013.
Thesis title: Human capital accumulation, gender discrimination, and economic performance
Main advisor: Jong-Wha Lee
Committee members: Jinyoung Kim, Kwanho Shin, Myoung-jae Lee, Dainn Wie
M.A. in Economics
B.S. in Industrial engineering (major) and B.A. in Economics (double major)
• Database constructed and managed of Barro and Lee educational attainment dataset, projections of educational attainment and database website (www.barrolee.com)
o Barro, R. J., and Lee, J. W. (2013). A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010. Journal of Development Economics, 104, 184-198.
• Published a research article on construction of historical educational attainment and human capital stock estimates for 111 countries since 1870
o Lee, J. W. and Lee, H. (2016). Human Capital in the Long Run, Journal of Development Economics, 122, 147-169.
Researcher to director Jong-Wha Lee
• Participated in simulating a model to quantitatively measure the opportunity cost of gender inequality in terms of output and the long-term productivity gains and income growth
• Engaged in research on human capital development and its role in economic growth in China and India
• Participated in a literature and data survey on Korea’s role in new global economic order (G20)
Abstract: The share of marriages between South Korean men and marriage immigrant women from other Asian countries has increased sharply since 1990, representing approximately 8% of all new marriages in 2009. We employ 2009 census data on these women to investigate the impact of the acquisition of Korean nationality on their empowerment in their household and community. We employ a regression kink design that exploits two-year conditional residence as an instrumental variable for nationality acquisition. Our results show that marriage immigrants’ legal entitlement lower the likelihood that they live with their mother-in-law. Their reported difficulties in their relationships with their parents-in-law also improved. Having a stable legal status lowers their experience of discrimination in general. However, we do not find evidence that legal entitlement increases their access to household resources, increases their probability of separating from their Korean spouse, or encourage them to raise their voice as migrants.
Abstract: This study constructs and calibrates a macroeconomic model that explains Korea’s glass ceiling and examines the output cost of gender discrimination. The model is based on the span-of-control framework in Lucas (1978). It assumes that the source of the glass ceiling is that women require more managerial skill than men to be considered for promotion. According to simulation results, without the glass ceiling, besides an increase in the share of female managers, aggregate output also increases by 8.4%. The output gain from a glass ceiling removal policy is monotonic because the number of workers continues to decline while the number of managers increases gradually. This implies that the more effective the policy implementation, the more the increase in output.
Abstract: This study investigates empirically how human capital, measured by educational attainment, is related to income distribution. The regressions, using a cross-country data between 1980 and 2015, show that a more equal distribution of education contributes significantly to reducing income inequality. Educational expansion is a major factor in reducing educational inequality and thus income inequality. Social benefits spending and price stability contribute to reducing income inequality, while public education spending helps to reduce educational inequality. In contrast, higher per capita income, greater trade openness and faster technological progress tend to make both income and education distribution more unequal. The calibration of empirical results shows that we can attribute the rising income inequality within East Asian economies in recent decades to the unequalizing effects of fast income growth and rapid progress in globalization and technological change, which have surpassed the income-equalizing effects from improved equality in the distribution of educational attainment.
Abstract: This study presents new data sets on long-run enrollment ratios, educational attainment, and human capital stock measures for numerous countries. We construct a complete data set of historical enrollment ratios, subdivided by education level and gender, for 111 countries from 1820 to 1945 (at five-year intervals) by using newly compiled census observations and information on the year of establishment of the oldest school in individual countries. Then, by utilizing these enrollment ratios, as well as available census data from 1945 onward on different age groups’ educational attainment, we construct a data set of estimated educational attainment, disaggregated by gender and age group, and aggregate human capital stock that spans from 1870 to 2010. The data show that over the past two centuries, there has been remarkable growth in average educational attainment and human capital stock as well as a narrowing of the gap in average educational attainment between nations.
Abstract: Using data on Korean workers from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies, the present study empirically investigates the incidence and wage effects of educational mismatch. Among full-time workers aged 25–54, approximately 27 percent are overeducated and 15 percent are undereducated. Our results reveal that, after controlling for omitted variable bias and measurement errors, return to an additional year of overeducation is significantly less than that to a year of required education, whereas undereducated workers do not appear to suffer wage penalties of deficit schooling. The findings also show that returns to a year of overeducation vary across fields of study. The returns to overeducation for college graduates from health and welfare, engineering and manufacturing, and social sciences, business and law are relatively high compared with those in agriculture, services, and humanities and arts.
Abstract: This study measures the intergenerational persistence of education attainment, using internationally comparable data for parents’ and children’s education levels by age cohort for 30 countries, and identifies its determinants. The estimated intergenerational regression coefficients show that educational mobility worsened over generations in most countries, but its degrees varies considerably across countries and over time. The country-cohort panel regressions show that intergenerational educational mobility decreases with educational expansion, income inequality and credit constraints, and increases with per-capita GDP. The results also highlight the importance of progressive public expenditure on education for improving intergenerational educational mobility.
Abstract: From 1993 to 2010, the proportion of female educational hypogamy – the tendency of like to marry down – has risen to 10.8%, which is greater than the proportion of male hypogamy. This paper examines how women’s hypogamy has changed over two decades, using 4.5 million couples from Korean Marriage Registration Data from 1993 to 2010. After control for individual characteristics, the results show that college educated women are more likely to marry down than non-college educated women. The probability of a female’s hypogamy decreases with employment and U-shaped relationship with age. The probability of a female’s hypogamy increases with the probability of marrying down again after turning down a less-educated man’s wedding proposal. This indicates that individual’s rational decision works in the Korean marriage market and the female hypogamy can become the common marriage style along with increasing female education and give solutions to the low fertility rates, female labor participation, and increasing income inequality.
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